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miércoles, 20 de noviembre 2019
20/11/2019
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Publicaciones GIAE

El GIAE ha realizado publicaciones desde 1998 hasta el presente, en las cuales se estudia el desarrollo de la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras en variados contextos. En revistas como Íkala, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English, PROFILE, en boletines o simposios se encuentran algunas de las publicaciones del grupo. 

 

2016-2011

Artículo  Resumen
Usma, J., & Silva, E. (2016, June). Reforma a las licenciaturas en Colombia: Un llamado a su estudio. Alma Máter, p. 11. Medellin.  Después de varios meses de discusión en todo el país, el Ministerio de Educación Nacional oficializó la reforma a los programas de Licenciatura a partir de la publicación del Decreto 2450 de 2015, la Resolución 2041 de 2016, y la Circular 14 de 2016. Estas normas no solamente establecen las exigencias para la obtención, renovación o modificación del registro calificado de los programas de licenciatura en Colombia, sino que materializan una reforma estructural al sistema educativo a partir de la redefinición del tipo de docente que se debe formar en las universidades. Consultar aquí
Pineda Hoyos, J. E., & Tamayo Cano, L. H. (2016). E-moderating and E-tivities: The Implementation of a Workshop to Develop Online Teaching Skills in In-service Teachers. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 18(1), 97–114. 

This paper reports the experience of implementing a teacher's professional development strategy that sought to foster e-moderator competencies among language faculty at a Colombian public university. The study aimed at finding the extent to which participants understood the concepts of e-moderation and e-tivities. We analyzed the participants' performance in three different tasks to give account of the incorporation of the concepts. The results from the analysis of the tasks showed that participants understand online processes, they have some technical skills and they have many personal characteristics that will help them become e-moderators. Consultar aquí.

Bedoya, P., Valencia, L., & Montoya, J. (2015). Students’ Needs Analysis in an EFL Program for University Professors. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English, 22(2), 11–36. 

This study sets out to investigate professors’ needs from an English as a foreign language program in a public university regarding demands, interests, and lacks based on the methodology of needs analysis. Data collected through a survey, focus groups, and individual interviews showed that professors need to meet the institutional language policy for contractual and academic reasons. Additionally, data revealed their desire to learn English to communicate in both academic and non-academic settings. Moreover, the lack of time and effective learning strategies were reported as comprising the main constraints for learning. Finally, the authors present the strengths and weaknesses of the program as well as the participants’ suggestions for curriculum restructuring.  Consultar aquí.

Willett, J., & Correa, D. (2014). On making language visible: Reciprocal learning in a professional development alliance. In J. F. Nagle (Ed.),English learner instruction through collaboration and inquiry in teacher education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.  With the passing of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act and the 2002 Massachusetts’ Law eliminating bilingual education (Willett & Rosenberger, 2005), overnight all educators in Massachusetts became responsible for the learning of the state’s English Learners. However, this was an enormous task that school districts were neither able to comply with nor ready to confront. With new federal funds available through Title III, many school districts turned to the universities for help in designing professional development programs with a focus on both raising teachers’ awareness about the language needed to construct and display knowledge in their content areas, and on teaching them how to make this language visible to their students. Consultar aquí.
Pineda, D. (2014). The Feasibility of Assessing Teenagers’ Oral English Language Performance with a Rubric. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 16(1), 181–198. This article reports the experience of a study group in a public university in Colombia, formed mostly by academic coordinators who worked in the design of assessment rubrics. Its focus is on the experience of the academic coordinator of the English program for teenagers, who concentrated on implementing the rubric to assess the students’ oral performance. The data collection instruments used were the rubric and interviews with the teachers and students. The results are related to the impact of the assessment rubrics on the program’s teachers regarding practicality. Consultar aquí.
Echeverri, P., Arias, N., & Gómez, I. C. (2014). La Pedagogía Crítica en la Formación de Docentes de Inglés: La Experiencia de un Grupo de Estudio. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 19(2), 167–181. En este artículo presentamos los hallazgos de un estudio de caso cuyo propósito fue explorar a fondo la experiencia de un grupo de estudio sobre pedagogía crítica conformado por docentes de inglés provenientes de diversos contextos. Los datos nos permiten concluir que en las experiencias de formación docente no sólo se debe propender por el desarrollo de una mayor claridad teórica, sino también por el desarrollo de una conciencia crítica de sí mismo y del mundo, lo cual puede servir como base para idear posibilidades de una pedagogía humanizante en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de lenguas.  Consultar aquí.
Echeverri, P. (2014). Making Sense of Critical Pedagogy in L2 Education Through a Collaborative Study Group. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 16(2), 171–184. In this article we discuss our experiences in the process of understanding critical pedagogy within an English teachers’ study group which was created for the purpose of learning how to teach language from a critical perspective. We particularly focus on the challenges of meaning making around critical pedagogy, as we realized that we were not all able to similarly enter this discourse. To illustrate our processes of understanding theory individually and collectively, some of the group members’ narratives are used as examples of our different perspectives. We argue that making sense of critical pedagogy, as part of a process of professional development, implies spaces and situations of personal confrontation with theory and support in collaborative learning through dialogue. Consultar aquí.
Correa, D., Usma, J., & Montoya, J. (2014). El Programa nacional de bilingüismo: un estudio exploratorio en el departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 19(1), 101–116.  En este reporte de investigación se presentan los resultados obtenidos en un estudio exploratorio sobre la visión de algunos actores educativos con respecto a la forma en que el Programa Nacional de Bilingüismo se venía implementando en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que si bien los participantes de este estudio no tenían mucha información con relación al programa, sí tenían mucho que decir con respecto a lasacciones que el Gobierno había puesto en marcha para su implementación en Antioquia y sobre cómo lograr que estas pudieran contribuir de manera más efectiva y eficaz al desarrollo de los objetivos de la política. Consultar aquí.
Correa, D., & Domínguez, C. (2014). Using SFL as a Tool for Analyzing Students’ Narratives. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English,21(2), 112–133.  Traditionally, at universities, English as a foreign language instructors have used a series of approaches to teach students how to write academic texts in English from both teacher preparation and regular programs. In spite of this, students continue to have problems writing the academic texts required of them in the different courses. Concerned with this issue, a group of English as a Foreign Language writing instructors from a Teacher Education Program in Medellín engaged in the study of Systemic Functional Linguistics. The purpose of this article is to report the insights that one of these instructors gained once he began using these theories to analyze a narrative text produced by one of the students in his class. Consultar aquí.
Bedoya, P. (2014). The Exercise of Learner Autonomy in a Virtual EFL Course in Colombia. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English,21(1), 82–102.  This case study explores how a group of graduate students manifest autonomy in an  English as a Foreign Language virtual course at a Colombian university. Analysis of questionnaires, forums, and interviews showed that students manifested attitudes that led to autonomy such as motivation and commitment at the beginning of the course, but they also manifested high levels of dependence and lack of self-confidence. Later, they became more confident and performed more independently, two attitudes closely-related to autonomy. Furthermore, the results show that factors such as course design, the platform, and the teacher’s role influenced the students’ exercise of autonomy. Finally, the need for designing virtual English as a Foreign Language courses that promote autonomous learning and the teachers’ and the students’ roles in virtual environments are discussed. Consultar aquí.
Picón, E. (2013b). What are the Grammar Rules that Govern the Subjunctive in English? Mutatis Mutandis: Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción, 6(1), 227–234. In this paper I intend to walk the reader through some historical changes in form and usage of the English subjunctive mood. Main different changes in time are spotted beginning in Old English, going through Modern English, and finally arriving to Contemporary English. As a conclusion, we can verify the changing nature of language and accept usage and simplicity as the only factors that mandate what is to be considered pragmatically proper or not in a language. This paper might be of usefulness for both translators and English teachers.  Consultar aquí.
Picón, E. (2013a). La rúbrica y la justicia en la evaluación. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 18(3), 79–94.  En este artículo se sustenta la tesis de que la utilización de rúbricas consensuadas garantiza en gran medida la promoción de prácticas evaluativas justas. Esta aseveración se basa en el argumento de que la creación y aplicación de rúbricas incrementa la validez y la transparencia en la evaluación, a la par que su diseño consensuado promueve la democracia, posibilita el impacto positivo en el aprendizaje o efecto washback y facilita prácticas equitativas —siendo todos estos principios inherentes a la justicia. Se enfatiza en un concepto de rúbrica que integra una tarea auténtica y su escala de valoración, como procedimiento de evaluación alternativa, dentro de un enfoque crítico.Consultar aquí.
Correa, D., & Usma, J. (2013). From a Bureaucratic to a Critical-Sociocultural Model of Policymaking in Colombia. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English, 20(1), 226–242. In the context of the National Bilingual Program 2004-2019, currently called “Program for Strengthening the Development of Competencies in a Foreign Language,” the Colombian government has implemented a series of actions to raise the level of English proficiency of teachers and students and insert the country into globalization processes. The purpose of this article, which is the result of a project conducted by the authors in Antioquia (Colombia) about the stakeholders’ views of the program, is to show how these actions fit a bureaucratic policymaking model which has been highly questioned by policy experts and to propose a new model which can be used to make deep changes in the program with the participation of all stakeholders.  Consultar aquí.
Restrepo, E. (2012). La política lingüística de certificación de la competencia en lengua extranjera en la Universidad de Antioquia: Un análisis desde el discurso. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 17(1), 27–44.  En este artículo se examinan algunos discursos sobre la Política Lingüística de Certificación de la Competencia en Lengua Extranjera (PL de CCLE) en la Universidad de Antioquia, con el fin de analizar las apreciaciones, percepciones y posiciones desde el tipo de discurso de algunos sujetos que administran la política en cuanto a lo que esta decreta y significa. El artículo presenta una aproximación metodológica basada en el análisis crítico del discurso para el tratamiento del tema a través de algunos textos tomados del corpus documental constituido por 1) treinta entrevistas semiestructuradas aplicadas al grupo que administra la política, a estudiantes de posgrado, a profesionales y a docentes que han tenido que cumplir con el requisito de certificación; y por 2) los acuerdos académicos y resoluciones rectorales que sustentan la política oficial. El análisis permite identificar las representaciones sobre la PL de CCLE de quienes la administran, además devela cómo desde este tipo de discurso se naturaliza y se legitima el requisito de certificación y cómo tal requisito opera como mecanismo para el cumplimiento de la política, adquiriendo un papel protagónico. Requisito que genera resistencia frente a la política lingüística y no tanto así la asumida importancia de la adquisición de la competencia en lengua extranjera.  Consultar aquí.
Picón, E. (2012). Promoting Learner Autonomy Through Teacher-Student Partnership Assessment in an American High School: A Cycle of Action Research. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 14(2), 145–162. In this article I present some findings of an action research study intended to find out to what extent a teacher-student partnership in writing assessment could promote high school students’ autonomy. The study was conducted in a U.S. school. Two main action strategies in the assessment process were the use of symbols as the form of feedback and the design of a rubric containing criteria negotiated with the students as the scoring method. Results showed that the students developed some autonomy reflected in three dimensions: ownership of their learning process, metacognition, and critical thinking, which positively influenced an enhancement of their writing skills in both English and Spanish. Likewise, the role of the teacher was found to be paramount to set appropriate conditions for the students’ development of autonomy.   Consultar aquí.
Cañas, N., Ardila, M., & Becerra, L. (2012). Maestro, traductor y tecnologías de la información y la comunicación en la Escuela de Idiomas de la Universidad de Antioquia: Realidades y retos. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 17(1), 61–79. Esta investigación cualitativa, de corte exploratorio y descriptivo, fue realizada a través de observaciones de clase y entrevistas a profesores y estudiantes. Ella nos permitió caracterizar el uso de las TICE en el proceso de adquisición de la lengua, su papel en los aspectos de la flexibilización curricular y las potencialidades subutilizadas en el contexto. Concluimos que el uso que los actores hacen de Internet favorece el desarrollo de las competencias lingüísticas; además, que se asiste a una transición en la profesión y la mentalidad de los profesores. Sin embargo, la formación, el trabajo colaborativo y la investigación son urgentes para que se reduzcan los problemas de subutilización del recurso. Asimismo, proponemos que la introducción de las TICE se aborde como una innovación curricular y no meramente como una innovación tecnológica.  Consultar aquí.
Arias, C., Maturana, L., & Restrepo, M. (2012). Evaluación de los aprendizajes en lenguas extranjeras: hacia prácticas justas y democráticas.Lenguaje, 40(1), 99–126. La falta de coherencia encontrada entre la evaluación y la promoción en lenguas extranjeras se abordó en esta investigación-acción interinstitucional con la consolidación de un Sistema consensuado de Evaluación. La implementación de dicho Sistema en cursos de inglés para principiantes en tres programas de extensión para adultos, demostró que la variedad de tipos y formas de evaluación, la rigurosidad y la sistematicidad, y el diseño meticuloso de instrumentos, formatos y tareas de evaluación, transforman las prácticas evaluativas en justas y democráticas, y benefician a estudiantes, profesores e instituciones.  Consultar aquí.
McIntyre, J., & Echeverri, P. (2011). A national survey of professional development schools. In J. Nath, I. Guadarrama, & J. Ramsey (Eds.),Investigating University-School Partnerships (pp. 49–61). Information Age Publishing, Inc.  Investigating University-School Partnerships: A Volume in Professional Development School Research, the fourth book in the PDS Research Series developed by the same editors, includes a collection of organized papers that represent the best and latest examples of practitioner thinking, research, and program design and evaluation in the field at the national level. A wide variety of authors from the professional community of PDS researchers, practitioners, and other stakeholders engage the reader in research or case studies that foreground real-life, authentic contexts, which, in turn, are designed to generate and fashion more questions and ideas. The volumeâ s contents of 26 chapters is divided into five areas: (1) PDS Evaluation (2) Teacher Research and Inquiry, (3) PDS Stakeholdersâ Studies, (4) Studies for Thought â Ideas for Development, and (5) Teaching Content Areas in PDSs. As a whole, the volume of papers maintains a consistency within a cohesive undercurrent that illustrates the spirited and visionary purpose of professional development schools to advance educational reform that leads to substantive change.  Consultar aquí.
Frodden, C., & McNulty, M. (2011). A new look at suprasegmentals. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 1(1 (1-2)), 101–116. The communicative method has been criticized because in stressing the negotiation of meaning and the speakers intentions, accuracy has become a minor goal. Accuracy implies attention to form, for example, correct grammar and correct style, vocabulary and pronunciation It is true that we can communicate even though we make these kinds of errors, however, too many mistakes may hinder comprehension. Good pronunciation should be a goal in any course that attempts at communicating effectively. Kenworthy is right when she states that "a person may eventually understand what someone has said, but if this has involved too much frustration and irritation resulting from constant repetitions, rephrasings, or checks on what has been said (i.e. too much pain') then the communication cannot be described as efficient" (1992,16).  Consultar aquí.

 

2010-2006

Artículo Resumen
McNulty, M., & Echeverri, L. (2010). Action research topics and questions in a foreign languages teaching practicum in Colombia. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 15(24), 207–230. Preservice teachers identify topics and formulate research questions in action research under the guidance of advisors in the teaching practicum of an undergraduate foreign languages teaching program in Colombia. Objective: To examine preservice teachers’ and advisors’ beliefs about useful methodological strategies to identify the topics and formulate the research questions, and the roles they assumed. Method: In this case study, structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were used with the participants. Results: This study shows that journal writing, collaborative dialogue, exploring and expanding one’s theoretical base, delimiting topics, and demonstrating work were useful strategies. Though preservice teachers took ownership of choosing topics and formulating questions, some shared roles led advisors to participate more actively in this process. Conclusions: The methodological process used to identify the topics and formulate the research questions is associated with a reflective professional development endeavour with individual and group reflection.  Consultar aquí.
McNulty, M., & Becerra, L. (2010). Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 12(2), 117–132. This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink’s (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human dimension, integration, and application. Students reported positive perceptions about learning with and about others, learning about themselves, integrating language and topics to their lives, and recycling and applying topics to other formats. They became more active and reflective language learners. Difficulties were linking significant unit goals and objectives to all participants’ needs and interests, students’ initial unwillingness to learn about others, and students’ limited proficiency for integrating and applying English. Consultar aquí. 
Gómez, C. (2010). Strategies to Help ESL Students Improve their Communicative Competence and Class Participation: A Study in a Middle School. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English, 17(1), 73–89. This article examines a qualitative study carried out at a middle school in North Carolina, the United States of America. The main purpose of the study was to find effective strategies that teachers can use to help ESL students improve their speaking skills and class participation. Results indicated that both communicative and social strategies as well as exposure to independent reading help ESL students improve their communicative skills and class participation.Consultar aquí. 
Echeverri, L., & McNulty, M. (2010). Reading Strategies to Develop Higher Thinking Skills for Reading Comprehension. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 12(1), 107–123. This paper reports an action research project which examined the foreign language reading comprehension of public school eighth graders who experienced a directed reading-thinking approach with strategies for comprehension and application. The strategies used were prediction, prior knowledge, graphic organizers, and questions. Data analyzed included participants’ perceptions of the usefulness of the strategies and students’ work on the graphic organizers and reading worksheets. Findings showed that participants thought that the strategies and an interactive reading task improved reading comprehension. The majority of students used English to answer knowledge, comprehension and a good number of application questions. The answers to the application questions provided by the less proficient students were, despite their use of Spanish, unclear. Consultar aquí. 
Correa, D. (2010). Developing academic literacy and voice: challenges faced by a mature ESL student and her instructors. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 12(1), 79–94.  Drawing on critical, socio-cultural and sociolinguistic theories of writing, text and voice, this ethnographic study examines the challenges that a mature ESL student and her instructors in a university course on Spanish Language Media face as they co-construct a common understanding of academic literacy and voice in an undergraduate General Studies Program offered by a university in Western Massachusetts. Intertextual analysis of the data suggests that traditional product-based approaches to helping students develop academic literacy might not be very effective. However, to be able to take a different approach, such as the one suggested by genre scholars, both faculty teaching content subjects and writing tutors would need appropriate training. Consultar aquí. 
Usma, J. (2009b). Globalization and Language and Education Reform in Colombia: A Critical Outlook. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura,14(22), 19–42. This paper explores the connection between economic, political, and cultural globalization processes and recent education and language reforms in Colombia. Throughout the article, the author attempts to demonstrate that current education and language policies in Colombia are tightly connected to transnational agendas and models of reform that do not necessarily represent a real benefit for the majority of the population, but, instead, may render privileges for a few. With this analysis, the author insists on the need for an equitable plan for the improvement of language teaching and learning in Colombia in a way that considers local priorities of economic development, respects local knowledge and culture, and accounts for a systemic and fundamental improvement of the public system based on the dissimilar conditions that affect schools, teachers, and students in both the private and the public sectors in the country. Consultar aquí.
Usma, J. (2009a). Education and Language Policy in Colombia: Exploring Processes of Inclusion, Exclusion, and Stratification in Times of Global Reform. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 11, 123–141. This paper examines the National Bilingual Program in connection with other education and language reforms in Colombia and some of the processes of inclusion, exclusion, and stratification that accompany current school reforms. The author outlines some patterns that have accompanied language innovations in the country and highlights some interconnected processes that seem to be favored in international reform and are reflected in current national policy agendas; namely, the externalization of policy discourses; the instrumentalization of languages; the stratification of groups, languages and cultures; and the standardization and marketization of foreign language teaching and learning. This paper attempts to demonstrate that processes of inclusion, exclusion and stratification through schooling are favored not only through the overt exercise of power and control, but also through the introduction of new discourses, policies, and practices. Consultar aquí.
Restrepo, M., & Arias, C. (2009). La investigación-acción en educación: un camino hacia el desarrollo profesional y la autonomía. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 14(22), 109–122. Este escrito muestra la dinámica de trabajo de nuestro equipo de profesores y estudiantes investigadores PEALE, y su contribución a nuestro desarrollo profesional y autonomía. No mostramos resultados del proyecto de investigación-acción sobre prácticas evaluativas en la adquisición de lenguas extranjeras, sino cómo éste ha propiciado conocimiento, experiencia, habilidades sociales, investigativas y evaluativas, y actitudes hacia la evaluación y la investigación. Con ejemplos de prácticas realizadas al interior del equipo, explicamos la puesta en escena de la reflexividad, la crítica dialéctica y la colaboración, principios de la investigación-acción. Presentamos, además, la relación de estos principios con el desarrollo profesional y la autonomía y la disposición de los investigadores para utilizar el empoderamiento alcanzado en la transformación de sus comunidades educativas. Consultar aquí. 
Correa, D. (2009). Exploring Academic Writing and Voice in ESL Writing. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 14(21), 103–132.  This literature review explores two basic questions: First, why have English as a Second Language (ESL)/English as a Foreign Language (EFL) academic writing courses not been able to signicantly help ESL/EFL students meet the academic writing demands of their university courses? Second, how can ESL/EFL writing instructors better help these students succeed in their undergraduate courses? To respond to these questions, the author reviews how notions of academic writing, text, and voice have changed over time, and how these changes have inuenced (ESL) and (EFL) writing approaches and methodologies. The author also presents some of the critiques that scholars have posed regarding each of these notions, approaches and methodologies, and draws some conclusions based on these critiques. Consultar aquí. 
Caro-Bruce, K., Klehr, M., Zeichner, K., & Sierra, A. (2009). A School District-Based Action Research Program in the United States. In S. Noffke & B. Somekh (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Educational Research (pp. 104–117). SAGE Publications Ltd. When the first Classroom Action Research (CAR) opportunity was offered by the Madison, Wisconsin Metropolitan School District staff development department in 1990, it was conceived and presented as an isolated learning opportunity. It was not supported by the kind of deep thinking and planning that would ensure its sustainability, nor was there a sense for how it would fit into the larger context and goals of the district. In the years since its modest beginnings, it has grown to meet the needs of individual schools and the larger district, has become aligned with national professional development standards, and manages to survive. Consultar aquí. 
Kohler, F., Henning, J., & Usma, J. (2008). Preparing preservice teachers to make instructional decisions: An examination of data from the teacher work sample. Teaching and Teacher Education, 24(8), 2108–2117. Consultar aquí. The purpose of this American study was to examine student teachers’ ability to make instructional decisions as they engaged in teaching. We examined the narrative accounts provided by 150 student teachers within their teacher work samples (TWSs). Results indicated that most student teachers were able to implement some aspects of instructional decision making, such as noting a specific difficulty with student learning and making an on-the-spot adjustment in their instruction. However, other elements of instructional decision making were less likely to be implemented. For example, student teachers relied on a limited range of formative assessment strategies and instructional modifications, and very few provided a sound rationale for their choice of modification. These results suggest that novice teachers may benefit from more opportunities to reflect and critique upon authentic learning experiences as they complete their teacher preparation programs. Finally, the TWS appears to represent a viable method for examining the instructional decisions of student teachers
Frodden, C., & Pineda, D. (2008). The Development of a Novice Teacher’s Autonomy in the Context of EFL in Colombia. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 9, 143–162.  This article reports the experience of a novice English teacher taking part in a collaborative action research project with a group of children in a bi-national language center in Colombia, where a theme-based approach to teaching had been recently introduced. The purpose of the study was to learn how to solve problems encountered with the approach and to develop learner and teacher autonomy. The findings show how reflection, collaborative work and critical thinking were promoted and enabled the teacher to find alternatives in her teaching, to gain a new understanding of this approach, and to develop teacher autonomy. Consultar aquí. 
Echeverri, P., & Hytten, K. (2008, November 1). Reflecting on Revolution. Educational Researcher.  In our review, we begin by providing an overview of the book and then reflect on the book through dialogue, a strategy that matches the spirit of PAR. We conclude by unpacking the central theme of “revolution” and how it plays out across the various chapters. The editors open the book with an introduction to the concept of PAR and the ways in which it involves a pedagogy of resistance that has the potential to enable oppressed youth to name, understand, challenge, and transcend their own oppression. Consultar aquí.
Usma, J. (2007a). Instructional Decision-Making as a Framework to Connect Theory and Practice in Language Teaching : The Case of Focus on Form. Matices En Lenguas Extranjeras Revista Electrónica. Este artículo explora el modelo denominado “Instructional Decision-Making” (IDM) (Toma de Decisiones del Docente) como un medio para conectar la teoría existente en el área de adquisición de segundas lenguas (SLA) y la práctica en la enseñanza y el aprendizaje de un idioma. Para este propósito, el autor examina los tres momentos en el modelo de IDM, el preactivo, el interactivo y el postactivo, y presenta la teoría de Focus on Form (FonF) (Enfoque en la Forma) como un ejemplo de cómo las teorías en SLA pueden ser aplicadas en el salón de clase a través de este modelo. Este artículo de revisión bibliográfica enfatiza en la necesidad de hacer de las teorías en SLA algo más aplicable para l@s docentes de lenguas, resalta el potencial del modelo de IDM para lograr esta conexión y muestra los beneficios y las limitaciones del enfoque de FonF como una propuesta pedagógica para los docentes de lenguas. El artículo concluye presentando algunas implicaciones a nivel investigativo y práctico. Consultar aquí. 
Sierra, A. (2007c). The Professional Development of a Facilitator through a Study Group. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 8, 91–102. Consultar aquí.  This article presents part of the results of a study that was conducted to observe the professional development of a group of foreign language teacher educators and preservice teachers. The study focused on the knowledge, skills and attitudes these teachers developed through their participation in a study group. This article reports specifically on the skills and attitudes the facilitator of the study group developed due to her role in it.
Sierra, A. (2007a). Developing Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes through a Study Group: A Study on Teachers’ Professional Development. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 12(18), 279–305.  This article presents the results of a qualitative study that explored the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes of a group of foreign language teacher educators and pre-service teachers through their participation in a study group. Sources of data included minutes of meetings, observations, tape recorded meetings, self-assessment forms and interviews. The findings show that teachers developed knowledge about the subject matter and research. Moreover, they developed skills such as research skills, critical thinking and collaborative work, and attitudes such as initiative, commitment, positive attitude towards research, and risk taking. It is concluded that the use of study groups can be an effective strategy for the professional development of teachers.  Consultar aquí.
McNulty, M., & Quinchía, D. (2007). Designing a Holistic Professional Development Program for Elementary School English Teachers in Colombia*. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 8, 131–144. The design and implementation of a holistic professional development program for elementary school English teachers in Colombia concerns target language improvement and pedagogical reflection. School-based and learner-centered, the program is characteristic of a synthetic, progressive, process-oriented curriculum as teachers’ language and pedagogical needs determined the learning and pedagogical activities for the program. The teachers improved their use of conventional English and became aware of an alternative approach for early foreign language instruction. They reported increased confidence using English and implementing new methodological strategies by getting positive feedback from their learners. Positive changes in teachers’ and students’ attitudes towards English suggest that this holistic approach be used as a viable professional development program for elementary school teachers in Colombia. Consultar aquí. 
Ardila, M., & Bedoya, J. (2006). La inclusión de la plataforma de aprendizaje en línea MOODLE en un curso de gramática contrastiva español-inglés. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje y Cultura, 11(17), 181–205. El presente artículo da cuenta de la experiencia resultante del trabajo colaborativo de dos profesores de la Escuela de Idiomas de la Universidad de Antioquia, quienes, con la pretensión de innovar en su práctica docente y contribuir al mejoramiento de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, incluyeron las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC) en el curso Gramática contrastiva español-inglés, del programa Licenciatura en Lenguas Extranjeras. El medio escogido fue la plataforma de aprendizaje en línea MOODLE, cuyas herramientas interactivas promueven el aprendizaje centrado en el estudiante, a través de la construcción del conocimiento basada en el trabajo colaborativo y en el autodescubrimiento. Consultar aquí. 

 

2005-1998

Artículo  Resumen
McNulty, M., & Usma, J. (2005). Evaluating Research Skills Development in a Colombian Undergraduate Foreign Language Teaching Program.Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 10(16), 95–125. The implementation of a research component in an undergraduate foreign language teaching program directed towards preservice development is evaluated in this research. Results show that factors such as course syllabi, professors’ methodology, and administration leadership affect this curricular innovation. Despite difficulties, research skill development can be improved with the necessary training, support, and time for professors’ understanding and collaboration.  Consultar aquí
Arias, C., & Maturana, L. (2005). Evaluación en lenguas extranjeras : discursos y prácticas. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 10(16), 63–91. Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación sobre discursos y practicas evaluativas, cuyo fin es cualificar a los profesores de lenguas extranjeras de dos universidades colombianas en la evaluación de los aprendizajes. Principalmente se encontró: convivencia confusa de las evaluaciones sumativa y formativa; imprecisa definición del constructo lingüístico expresado en habilidades; énfasis excesivo en el área organizativa de la lengua a expensas del área pragmática; demasiada importancia a aspectos no lingüísticos; poca discriminación entre lo que se valora y lo que se mide en decisiones de promoción, y escasa consideración de muchas de las cualidades de las tareas evaluativas. Además, la falta de estabilidad laboral de los profesores, de directrices claras, de consenso, y de registros formales y sistemáticos de los resultados de las evaluaciones, contribuye a la dudosa promoción de los estudiantes. Consultar aquí.
Mesa, C., & Frodden, C. (2004). Promoting autonomy through project work. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 9(15), 205–230. This article presents teacher and learners’ experience implementing project work as a strategy the authors used in an undergraduate foreign language teaching program at an important public university in Colombia. In order to find support for their view that project work is an effective approach to developing future teachers’ autonomy, students who had participated in project work were interviewed and their responses were analyzed using Benson’s contributions 1997, 2001 on autonomous learning, and Legutke and Thomas (1991) on project work as a framework. The authors discuss the following issues based on the students’ experience: stages in the development of the project, characteristics of project work, and its relevance to developing learner autonomy. Consultar aquí.
Frodden, C., Restrepo, M., & Maturana, L. (2004). Analysis of assessment instruments used in foreign language teaching. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 9(15), 169–201.  This article presents partial results of a research project on foreign language teachers’ discourse and practices with respect to assessment, the aim of which is to improve teachers’ assessment practices. The study, conducted in two Colombian universities, has various components: analysis of documents, interviews with teachers and students, and workshops with participating teachers in order to qualify them and agree on an improved assessment system. In this report we discuss the analysis made of tests, grids, registers, and forms and other kinds of instruments that teachers use to assess their students. For the analysis of instruments we used an inductive-deductive procedure whereby categories emerging from a first analysis of instruments were then refined by comparing them to those proposed by Bachman and Palmer (1996) and other authors. In general, teachers seem to prefer “hard” over “soft” types of assessment. Moreover, the qualities of assessment on which they seem to rely the most are practicality and reliability; and the ones least taken into consideration are authenticity and interactivity. Consultar aquí.
Cadavid, C., McNulty, M., & Quinchía, D. (2004). Elementary English Language Instruction: Colombian Teachers’ Classroom Practices. PROFILE Issues in Teachers’ Professional Development, 5(1), 37–55.  An in-progress ethnographic research project about teachers who are facing the complex task of teaching English to children in 7 public elementary schools in the metropolitan area of Medellin is presented in this article. First, the need for this research is outlined by researchers; second, the methodology of the project is described; third, up-to-date findings which include a profile of the 12 teachers who are participating in this study, and an analysis of their class methodology in terms of activities, materials, teacher and student roles are reported. Lastly, implications of this research project related to early foreign language instruction are highlighted. Consultar aquí. 
Usma, J., & Frodden, C. (2003). Promoting teacher autonomy through educational innovation. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 8(14), 101–132. In this article, a teacher-researcher and her advisor report on an action-research project aimed at developing student autonomy through the implementation of self-assessment and learning strategies, in an English course for students of different academic programs in a well-known university in Medellín. Affective factors, metacognition, the role of the teacher and linguistic achievement emerged as the main themes related to developing learner autonomy. In this paper the authors aim at a better understanding and discussion on how motivation affects students' decisions regarding planning, monitoring and evaluating their learning, and how this regulation process and the facilitating role of the teacher helps them broaden their learning strategies and improve their linguistic performance. Consultar aquí.
Sierra, A., & Frodden, C. (2003). Promoting Student Autonomy Through Self-assessment and Learning Strategies. HOW, A Colombian Journal for Teachers of English, 10, 133–166. In this article, a teacher-researcher and her advisor report on an action-research project aimed at developing student autonomy through the implementation of self-assessment and learning strategies, in an English course for students of different academic programs in a well-known university in Medellín. Affective factors, metacognition, the role of the teacher and linguistic achievement emerged as the main themes related to developing learner autonomy. In this paper the authors aim at a better understanding and discussion on how motivation affects students' decisions regarding planning, monitoring and evaluating their learning, and how this regulation process and the facilitating role of the teacher helps them broaden their learning strategies and improve their linguistic performance.  Consultar aquí. 
Frodden, C., & Cardona, G. (2001). Autonomy in foreign language teacher education. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura. This paper summarizes the findings of a research project conducted on the development of autonomy in foreign language teaching program in two Colombian universities. This project can be seen as an outcome of an overall project (COFE Project), supported by the British and Colombian governments in which twenty-six other universities participated. The aim of the COFE Project was to improve the quality of pre-service English educators and promoting learner autonomy through the donation of resource centers.  Consultar aquí. 
Rubiano, C., Frodden, C., & Cardona, G. (2000). The impact of the Colombian Framework for English (COFE) Project: an insiders’ perspective.Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 5(9-10), 37–56. Under the influence of the COFE Project, the ultimate goal of which was to improve the teaching of English in secondary schools in Colombia, English teacher training courses underwent profound changes, which prepared the ground for curricular adjustments required by the Comité Nacional de Acreditación. The article presents the results of the evaluation of the COFE Project conducted by a team of teachers from nin universities from five areas: language development, professional development, research, resources and evaluation.  Consultar aquí. 
Frodden, C. (1999). Action research in a graduate foreign language teaching program. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 4(7-8), 101–124..  This article presents the findings of an investigation on the process of carrying out collaborative action research with teachers of English as a foreign language in a newly created graduate program, in a Colombian university. From the analysis of interviews and minutes of meetings with students and advisors, important issues that impinge on the successful development of the research process were found. The difficulties notwithstanding, participants emphasized the benefits of this experience in terms of empowerment and learning.  Consultar aquí
Frodden, C., & López, A. (1998). University-schools collaboration through the teaching program. Íkala, Revista de Lenguaje Y Cultura, 3(6), 47–68. This article addresses the authors’ experience carrying out their teaching practice of English in a group of public schools in Medellin. This teaching practice which is part of an undergraduate language teaching program, is based on principles of collaborative action research. It seeks to enhance the quality of basic education. Since all participants have the chance to develop knowledge, discuss new ideas and feed curricular changes, the practicum is a fruitful learning context. Consultar aquí. 
Correa, D. (1998). Improving students’ learning by involving them in the design of the course. Íkala, Revista De Lenguaje Y Cultura, 3(6), 33–46. This collaborative learning experience narrates how a group of university students was involved in the design of their course and how they also took part in evaluating the results of this process. To do so, they had to reflect back upon the decisions made and discuss which actions had the best effects and why. Consultar aquí.  

 

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